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History of Four Oldest Universities of the World

Online Desk | June 03, 2014
Four Oldest Universities of the World

Four Oldest Universities of the World

Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad (established 1065 AD):
The most famous and celebrated of all the nizamiyyah schools was Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad (established 1065), where Khwaja Nizam al-Mulk appointed the distinguished philosopher and theologian, al-Ghazali, as a professor. Persian poet Sa'di was a student of the Baghdad Nizamiyyah.

According to Mughatil ibn Bakri, a staff member of the Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad, he alleges that Nizam al-Mulk converted to Shia Islam after a Sunni-Shia debate held on the orders of Sultan Malik Shah I, who also converted to Shia'ism. But it is thereafter that they were both assassinated. This narration is disputed, however, by most historians and Sunni scholars.

The University of Bologna (established 1088 AD):
The University of Bologna is a university in Bologna, Italy, founded in 1088. As of 2013 the University's crest carries the motto Alma mater studiorum and the date A.D. 1088. The University has about 85,000 students in its 23 schools. It has branch centres in Imola, Ravenna, Forlì, Cesena and Rimini and a branch center abroad in Buenos Aires. It also has a school of excellence named Collegio Superiore di Bologna.

It is widely recognized as the oldest university in continuous operation, considering that it was the first to use the term universitas for the corporations of students and masters which came to define the institution. The university received a charter from Frederick I Barbarossa in 1158, but in the 19th century, a committee of historians led by Giosuè Carducci traced the founding of the University back to 1088, which would make it the oldest continuously-operating university in the world.

University of Paris (established 1096 AD):
The University of Paris was a famous university in Paris, France, and one of the earliest to be established in Europe. It was founded in the middle of the 12th century and was officially recognized as a university from between 1160 and 1250 approximately.
After many changes, including a century of suspension (from 1793 to 1896), it was divided into thirteen autonomous universities in 1970. The university is often referred to as the Sorbonne or la Sorbonne, after the collegiate institution (Collège de Sorbonne) founded around 1257 by Robert de Sorbon, although the university was never completely centered on the Sorbonne. Of the thirteen current successor universities, four have premises in the historical Sorbonne building, and three of them include "Sorbonne" in their names.

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Cambridge University (established 1209 AD):
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, England. Founded in 1209, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's third-oldest surviving university. It grew out of an association formed by scholars leaving the University of Oxford after a dispute with townsfolk; the two "ancient universities" have many common features and are often jointly referred to as "Oxbridge".

Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six Schools. The university occupies buildings throughout the town, many of which are of historical importance. The colleges are self-governing institutions founded as integral parts of the university.

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